Nakón-I'a wo!: Beginning Nakoda

Ebook

Nakón-I'a wo!: Beginning Nakoda

Written for beginning learners of Nakoda (also known as Assiniboine), this workbook, arranged thematically, provides a Nakoda/English lexicon, a vocabulary, a table of kinship terms, a glossary of linguistic terminology, and exercises to do after each lesson.

This book was made possible with the assistance of Elders and Language Keepers of the Nakoda Nation: Armand McArthur and Wilma Kennedy, Main Consultants; with additional contributions by Pete Bigstone, Leona Kroscamp, Freda O'Watch, and Ken Armstrong.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Nakón-I'a wo!: Beginning Nakoda 1
Contents 5
Introduction 9
Chapter 1 11
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 11
Thanking, Farewell, and Self-Introduction 13
Nakoda Alphabet and Sound System 13
Syllables and Accent 15
Parts of Speech 16
Note on Spelling 19
Chapter 1 Exercises 20
Chapter 2 21
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 21
Word Order in Nakoda 23
Demonstratives 24
Class 1: Regular Stem Verbs 25
Dual ų- “we two” 28
Sounds: Uvulars ǧ and ȟ 28
Chapter 2 Exercises 29
Chapter 3 32
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 32
Interrogative Sentences 34
Imperative Particles wo and bo 35
Class 2: Y-Stem Verbs 36
Potential/Future Marker -kta 38
Sounds: Glottal stop [’] 39
Chapter 3 Exercises 39
Chapter 4 42
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 42
Cardinal Numbers 44
Ordinal numbers 46
Mathematical operations 46
Age and Time 47
Distance and Height 49
Chapter 4 Exercises 50
Chapter 5 53
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 53
Kinship Nouns 55
Reference to Time: Past, Present, and Future/Potential 56
Class 3: Nasal Conjugation Verbs (or N-Conjugation) 57
Plural of Subjects 59
Chapter 5 Exercises 62
Chapter 6 65
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 65
Negation 67
Active and Stative Verbs 67
Stative Verbs: Colours 71
How to Say “To Be” in Nakoda 72
Sounds: Nasal Spread 74
Chapter 6 Exercises 75
Chapter 7 78
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 78
Declarative Male Enclitic no 80
“Let’s” Constructions 80
Conjunction Markers: í˛š “and, also, him/her/it/they too”; hí˛kna “and”; eštá “or” 81
Spatial Adverbs and Postpositions 82
Chapter 7 Exercises 84
Chapter 8 87
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 87
Asking Questions with Where, When, and Who 89
Verbs of Departing, Going, and Arriving 90
Active Verbs: Intransitive and Transitive 92
Inflections of Transitive Verbs (Third Person Object) 93
Sounds: Ejective Consonants 96
Chapter 8 Exercises 97
Chapter 9 99
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 99
More Verbs Expressing States and Bodily Functions 101
Ownership and Possession 102
Part/Whole Relations 106
Noun Quantifiers edáhą “some” and dóna “some, many” 107
Chapter 9 Exercises 107
Chapter 10 110
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 110
Complex Noun Formation 112
Noun Incorporation 114
Independent Pronouns for Focus and Contrast 115
Intensifiers -ȟ and -ȟtįyą 116
Chapter 10 Exercises 117
Chapter 11 120
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 120
Adverbs of Time/Space and Manner 123
Formation of Irregular Verbs 125
Inflections of Transitive Verbs (Third Person Subject) 127
Chapter 11 Exercises 131
Chapter 12 131
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 134
Tribes and Tribal Affiliation 136
Transitive Verb Inflections: -ci- “I on you” and -maya- “you on me” 137
Aspectual Markers 139
Chapter 12 Exercises 141
Chapter 13 144
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 144
Linkers: cén, nécen, žécen, ecén 147
Complex Sentences with the Conditionals štén “if, when” and hą́da(hą) “whenever” 149
Inflections of Transitive Verbs: -wįca- (Third Person Plural Object) 151
Chapter 13 Exercises 153
Chapter 14 157
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 157
Gicí “with someone”; óm “with them” 160
Reciprocal -gici-/-ci- “action done to one another” 160
Modality Particles 162
Specific, Unspecific Objects 163
Interjections 164
Chapter 14 Exercises 165
Chapter 15 168
Objectives and Dialogues 168
Instrumentals 169
Indefinite Prefix wa- 171
Locatives a-, o-, į- 172
Nominalizing Ablaut and Zero Nominalization 175
Chapter 15 Exercises 178
Chapter 16 181
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 181
Reduplication 183
Compounding 184
Causatives -ya and -kiya 186
Aspectual Auxiliary Verbs 189
Modality Verbs 190
Chapter 16 Exercises 193
Chapter 17 197
Objectives, Dialogues, and Vocabulary 197
Reflexive -įc’i-/-įk- “to act upon oneself” 198
Possessive -gi-/-k- “to act on one’s own” 200
Dative -gi- “to act to, for, of somebody else” 202
Benefactive -giji- “to act for the benefit of somebody else” 204
Chapter 17 Exercises 207
Chapter 18 211
Objectives 211
Dialectal Differences 211
Chapter 18 Exercises 212
References 223
Appendix 1: Kinship Table 225
Appendix 2: Glossary of Grammatical Terms 228
Appendix 3: Verb Classes 230
Nakoda/English Lexicon 233